(a) To ensure that any person whose rights or freedoms as herein recognized are violated shall have
an effective remedy, notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an
official capacity;

(b) To ensure that any person claiming such a remedy shall have his right thereto determined by
competent judicial, administrative or legislative authorities, or by any other competent authority
provided for by the legal system of the State, and to develop the possibilities of judicial remedy;

(c) To ensure that the competent authorities shall enforce such remedies when granted.

Article 3

The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to ensure the equal right of men and women
to the enjoyment of all civil and political rights set forth in the present Covenant.

Article 4

1 . In time of public emergency which threatens the life of the nation and the existence of which is
officially proclaimed, the States Parties to the present Covenant may take measures derogating from
their obligations under the present Covenant to the extent strictly required by the exigencies of the
situation, provided that such measures are not inconsistent with their other obligations under
international law and do not involve discrimination solely on the ground of race, colour, sex,
language, religion or social origin.

2. No derogation from articles 6, 7, 8 (paragraphs I and 2), 11, 15, 16 and 18 may be made under this

3. Any State Party to the present Covenant availing itself of the right of derogation shall immediately
inform the other States Parties to the present Covenant, through the intermediary of the SecretaryGeneral of the United Nations, of the provisions from which it has derogated and of the reasons by
which it was actuated. A further communication shall be made, through the same intermediary, on
the date on which it terminates such derogation.

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