1. Nothing in the present Covenant may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person
any right to engage in any activity or perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights
and freedoms recognized herein or at their limitation to a greater extent than is provided for in the
2. There shall be no restriction upon or derogation from any of the fundamental human rights
recognized or existing in any State Party to the present Covenant pursuant to law, conventions,
regulations or custom on the pretext that the present Covenant does not recognize such rights or
that it recognizes them to a lesser extent.
1. Every human being has the inherent right to life. This right shall be protected by law. No one shall
be arbitrarily deprived of his life.
2. In countries which have not abolished the death penalty, sentence of death may be imposed only
for the most serious crimes in accordance with the law in force at the time of the commission of the
crime and not contrary to the provisions of the present Covenant and to the Convention on the
Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. This penalty can only be carried out pursuant
to a final judgement rendered by a competent court.
3. When deprivation of life constitutes the crime of genocide, it is understood that nothing in this
article shall authorize any State Party to the present Covenant to derogate in any way from any
obligation assumed under the provisions of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the
Crime of Genocide.
4. Anyone sentenced to death shall have the right to seek pardon or commutation of the sentence.
Amnesty, pardon or commutation of the sentence of death may be granted in all cases.